坂本 光代 Mitsuyo SAKAMOTO

日時: 8月10日(月曜日)
11.00 -12.30 pm

Title: “Superdiversity within the Japanese-Brazilian community: Exploring language and cultural maintenance among Japanese new- and oldcomers in Brazil”



This study compares the ethnolinguistic vitality among Japanese new- nd oldcomers in Sao Paulo and its vicinity. Eleven hours of interviews were conducted with four participants: two bilingual Japanese-Brazilians (one second- and one third-generation), and two caregivers (one newcomer from Japan, and one second-generation Japanese-Brazilian). Interviews were conducted in Japanese, audio recorded and transcribed for analysis.Diversity within diversity is referred to as “superdiversity”, a unifying force among diverse ethnic groups as “entropy”, and a state of co-existence among them as “conviviality” (Blommaert, 2013). This study explores Japanese-Brazilians’ superdiversity by examining the extent of entropy and conviviality in light of their language learning as well as Japanese cultural maintenance.People acquire and use languages as an “investment” (Norton Pierce, 1995), but Japanese is not enthusiastically acquired and maintained in Brazilian society. Compared to more powerful languages (i.e., English, Spanish and Portuguese), Japanese is ascribed very little linguistic capital (Bourdieu, 1991). Specifically, the Japanese-Brazilian variety of Japanese (Colonial Japanese) has historically endured stigmatization, propagating hegemonic discourse among the Japanese-Brazilian community. That is, “native-speaker Japanese” is still a preferred vernacular to learn, and even in that case, it does not attract demands outside the Japanese community. Therefore, those who seek higher social mobility attain higher education and pursue professional careers (Shibata, 2009), leaving Japanese language and culture behind, to establish conviviality within the Brazilian society. However, conviviality takes a different form among Japanese-Brazilians themselves. The Japanese-Brazilian community is distinctly stratified, with newcomers deemed to possess a “superior” language variety, and second- and third-generation trailing behind. Therefore, conviviality and entropy among Japanese-Brazilians can be described as complex, fluid, and multifaceted. As this is a small case study, further research is called for to investigate the ethnolinguistic vitality among Japanese-Brazilians as well as Brazilians of other ethnic groups.

佐藤 慎司  Shinji SATO

日時: 8月11日(火曜日)







小林 ミナ Mina KOBAYASHI

日時: 8月12日(水曜日)




日本語教育が育成すべきなのはどのような日本語能力か。教師や教室はそのためにど のような役割を担えるか。本講演では、この問いについて言語とコミュニケーションの観 点から考える。
「日本人みたいに話せるようになりたい」「日本人のように日本語が上手だ」といっ た発言を聞くことがある。もちろんこのような発言は,「日本語が上手になりたい」とい う思いや相手の日本語力を誉める気持ちから来ているのだろう。しかしながら、そこから は「日本人みたいな話し方」といったものが存在するという誤解が窺える。そこには日本 語の特徴が影響している可能性がある。この誤解を乗り越え次に進むためには、「社会と は何か」「そこに言語の使い手としての「私」がどう位置づけられるのか」を考える必要 がある。
それらの議論を踏まえて、日本語教育が育成するべき日本語能力、日本語教師に求め られる文法教育力について述べるとともに、教育実践の事例を紹介したい。

『日本語教育能力検定試験に合格するための教授法 37(日本語教育能力検定試験に合格するためのシリーズ)』(単著)2010
『日本語教育の過去・現在・未来――第3巻 教室』(共編)2009年,凡人社
『日本語教育の過去・現在・未来――第5巻 文法』(共編)2009年,凡人社


峯松 信明   Nobuaki MINEMATSU

日時: 8月10日(月曜日)

Title: “Perceptual and structural analysis of pronunciation diversity of World Englishes”



Nobuaki Minematsu obtained the Doctor of Engineering degree from Graduate School of Engineering, the University of Tokyo in 1995 and is currently a full professor there. He has a very wide interest in speech communication covering from science to engineering. He has published more than 400 scientific and technical papers including conference papers. They are related to speech analysis, speech perception, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech applications especially related to CALL, etc. He received paper awards from RISP, JSAI, ICIST, and O-COCOSDA in 2005, 2007, 2011, and 2014 and received an encouragement award from PSJ in 2014. Recently, he gave tutorial seminars on CALL at APSIPA2011 and INTERSPEECH2012 and more than fifty OJAD tutorial workshops all over the world. He also gave invited talks or keynote talks at ICIST2014, PAAL2014, and O-COCOSDA2014. From 2015, he is a distinguished lecturer of APSIPA. He is a member of IEEE, ISCA, IPA, SLaTE, APSIPA, IEICE, ASJ, etc.

CALL = Computer Aided Language Learning
RISP = Research Institute of Signal Processing
JSAI = Japan Society of Artificial Intelligence
ICIST = International Conference on Information Science and Technology
COCOSDA = International Committee for the Co-ordination and Standardization of Speech Databases and Assessment Techniques
PSJ = Phonetic Society of Japan
APSIPA = Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association
PAAL = Pan-pacific Association of Applied Linguistics
IEEE = The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
ISCA = International Speech Communication Association
SLaTE = ISCA Special Interest Group on Speech and Language Technology for Education
IPA = International Phonetic Association
IEICE = Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers
ASJ = Acoustic Society of Japan
OJAD = Online Japanese Accent Dictionary


English is the only language available for global communication but its form is altered easily and variously depending on the language background of speakers. If we take two users of English, their pronunciation will show different characteristics, called accents. Today, we often hear the term of World Englishes (WE), where it is claimed that there is no standard pronunciation of English. English is a very useful tool but it is true that, in international context, accents often cause miscommunications. In this talk, the lecturer will show recent results obtained in two on-going projects related to the diversity of pronunciation of WE.

In the first project, his research team objectively measured the intelligibility of Japanese accented English (JE) spoken to American listeners with almost no prior exposure to JE. 100 male and 100 female university students repeated reading given sentences until they thought they could read adequately. Their “adequate” readings were recorded and presented on a telephone line to American listeners who had seen Japanese only on television. The task was just to repeat what they heard and their responses were transcribed word by word. In this experiment, as reference, native utterances were also used and in total, 800 utterances of JE and 100 utterances of American English (AE) were presented to 173 American listeners. On average, one utterance was heard by 21 listeners. Word-based correct perception rates were 89.2% for AE but only 50.0% for JE. It should be noted that all the utterances used were “adequate” for the Japanese speakers. Using these data, we’re developing a technique that takes an English manuscript as input and displays which parts of the manuscript will be unintelligible to American listeners if it is read with a Japanese accent.

Do Japanese have to learn the American accent more or do Americans have to adapt themselves to the Japanese accent more? The lecturer considers that one should be more aware of how diverse WE pronunciation is and where his/her pronunciation is located in the diversity. Currently, we can find a good online resource of WE such as TED talk archive. In the second project, the lecturer’s team is developing a technology that can cluster WE pronunciations by the unit of individual, with which, a global but individual-basis pronunciation map of WE and an accent-based browser of TED talks will be possible. In the experiment, by using the Speech Accent Archive (SAA), the accent gap between any two SAA speakers was defined quantitatively by using their IPA transcripts. After that, the accent gaps were predicted automatically only by using speech signals of those speakers. Results showed that the correlation between IPA-based gaps and predicted gaps is 0.77, which is comparable to the correlation between IPA-based gaps and phoneme-based gaps. In the lecture, some future directions are also indicated.

“オンライン日本語アクセント辞書 OJAD の開発と利用”,国語研プロジェクトレビュー,vol.4,no.3,pp.174-182 (2014-2)
“人間に近づく音声認識”,日経サイエンス6月号,pp.94-99,日経サイエンス社 (2009-6)
“[あ]を聞いて/あ/と同定する能力は音声言語運用に必要か? ~音声認識研究からの一つの提言~”,日本語学4月号,p.187-197,明治書院 (2008-4)

定延 利之 Toshiyuki SADANOBU

日時: 8月13日(木曜日)







【主要著書】『日本語社会 のぞきキャラくり』(2011年,三省堂),『煩悩の文法』(2008年, 筑摩書房),『日本語不思議図鑑』(2006年,大修館書店),『ささやく恋人,りきむレポーター』(2005年,岩波書店),『認知言語論』(2000年,大修館書店),『よくわかる言語学』(1999年.アルク)。【最近の主要論文】“The competitive relationship between Japanese accent and intonation”(Japanese Speech Communication 1,2012年),「身体としてのことば」(『通訳翻訳研究』11,日本通訳翻訳学会,2011年),“Evidential extension of aspecto-temporal forms in Japanese from a typological perspective”(Cahier Chronos 23,2011年,Andrej Malchukov氏と共著),「コミュニケーション研究からみた日本語の記述文法の未来」(『日本語文法』11,日本語文法学会,2011年),「会話においてフィラーを発するということ」(『音声研究』14, 日本音声学会,2010年),「話し手は言語で感情・評価・態度を表して目的を達するか?」(『自然言語処理』14,言語処理学会,2007年)。

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